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Preconception and Interconception Pediatric Primary Care Utilization of Pregnant and Parenting Teens

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PURPOSE: Gaps in preventive care may contribute to adverse outcomes among pregnant teens. This study quantified teen preventive care utilization before and after pregnancy. METHODS: A continuous retrospective cohort identified 150 teens with a positive pregnancy test (July 2015 to May 2017) at two pediatric primary care sites. Chart review assessed office visits for 18 months before and after the pregnancy test. We also assessed contraceptive counseling, pregnancy outcomes (live birth, miscarriage, termination), and continuity with a single clinician. Demographic factors included age, race, ethnicity, primary insurance, and residential zip code. Logistic regression identified factors associated with visits after pregnancy. Separately, for a cohort of 47 parenting teens who received primary care at the same site as their infants, we assessed teen–infant care after birth. RESULTS: Teens were predominantly non-Latina black (91%) and Medicaid insured (71%). Before pregnancy, most teens had preventive visits (66%) and reported contraceptive use (65%). After pregnancy, 52% discussed pregnancy decisions within a month, 55% reported contraceptive use, and 64% had any primary care visit. Postpregnancy visits were associated with teen age (<18 vs. ≥18 years odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.17–6.90) and pregnancy outcome (termination vs. live birth odds ratio 4.02, 95% confidence interval 1.47–11.01). Among parenting teens, there were more infant visits than teen visits, and continuity was higher for infants. CONCLUSION: In a primary care cohort of pregnant teens, gaps persisted in pediatric clinical follow-up after pregnancy. Particularly in situations where pregnancy led to a birth, pregnancy frequently prompted a transition away from pediatric care.


Gregory EF, Henry D, Akers AY